The climate of Serbia is moderately continental, with localised variations and a gradual change between the seasons. Nearby geographical regions like the Alps, the Mediterranean Sea, the Bay of Genoa, the Pannonian Basin and the Morava Valley, the Carpathian and Rhodope mountains, as well as Serbia’s hilly and mountainous region, with its valleys and plateaus, significantly influence the weather and climate in Serbia. The dominant position of river valleys from the south towards the hilly areas in the north of the country allows the deep penetration of polar air masses in southern regions. The vast majority of Serbian territory lies in a temperate climate zone, but the southwestern regions border the subtropical and continental climate zones.
Themean annual air temperature for areas 300 m above sea-level is 10.9°C and for regions at an altitude of 300 m to 500 m it is around 10°C. In mountainous regions above 1000 m the air temperature is around 6°C, while in regions above 1500 m it is around 3°C. Autumn is warmer than spring. The coldest month is January with the mean monthly temperature ranging from -6°C in mountainous regions to around 0°C in the country’s flat regions. The warmest month is July with the mean monthly temperature ranging from 11°C to 22°C The highest recorded temperature was 44.9°C in 2007 in Smederevska Palanka and the lowest recorded temperature was -39.5° in 1985 in the Pešter Plateau.
The annual rainfall in low-lying areas ranges from 540 to 820 mm. Regions which are 1000 m above sea-level have between 700 and 1000 mm of rainfall annually, while some mountain peaks in southwestern Serbia have up to 1500 mm of rainfall a year. The majority of Serbia has continental rainfall patterns, with larger volumes in the warmer half of the year, apart from southwestern areas which have the most rainfall in autumn. June is the rainiest month, with an average of 12 to 13% of the total annual rainfall that month. February and October are the least rainy months. The normal annual volume of rainfall for the entire country is 896 mm.
Snow coveris characteristic of the period between November and March, and sometimes there is snowfall in April and October too. Mountains above 1000 m can have snow cover all year round. January has the most days with snow cover, with 30 to 40% of the total annual number of days with snow cover occurring during that month.
The annual number of hours of sunshine ranges from 1500 to 2200 hours.
The winds which dominate the warmer part of the year are north-westerly and westerly. The Košava – an easterly and south-easterly wind which brings clear and dry weather in intervals of two to three days – is common in autumn and winter. South-westerly winds dominate the mountainous regions of south-western Serbia.
The mean atmospheric pressure in Belgrade is 1001 mb and the mean relative air humidity is 69.5%